i need to create ER diagram for this requirement . please help on this.
The Newbigging Council Library (NCL) has approximately 5000 members, 29,300 titles, and 67,390 volumes (which is an average of 2.3 copies per book/title). About 35% of the volumes are out on loan at any one time. The librarians at NCL ensure that the books that members want to borrow are available whenever the members need to borrow them. Also, the librarians must know how many copies of each book/title are in the library or out on loan at any given time. A catalogue of books needs to be available for the users to check and search; and it lists books by author, title, and subject area.
For each title in the library, a book description is kept in the catalogue that ranges from one sentence to several pages. The reference librarians want to be able to access this description when members request information about a book. Library staff at NCL includes senior librarian, associate librarians, reference librarians, check-out and returns staff, and library assistants. For each book / title, there could be one or more copies kept in the library. Copies of books can be checked out for 21 days.
Members are allowed to have only ten books out at a time. Members usually return books within three to four weeks. Most members know that they have one week of grace period before a notice is sent to them, so they try to return books before the grace period ends. About 5% of the members have to be sent reminders to return books. Most overdue books are returned within a month of the due date. Approximately 10% of the overdue books are either kept or never returned. The most active members of the library are defined as those who borrow books at least ten times during the year. The top 5% of the members does 25% of the borrowing, and the top 10% of the membership does 39% of the borrowing. About 25% of the members are totally inactive in the sense that they are members who never borrow.
To become a member of the library, applicants fill out a form including their names, IDs, home mailing addresses, email addresses, and phone numbers, etc. The librarians issue a numbered, machine-readable card with the member’s photo on it. This card is valid for five years. A month before a card expires, a notice is sent to the member for renewal. Local councillors at the Newbigging Council are considered automatic members.
When a new councillor joins the council, his or her information is pulled from the council’s staff records and a library card is mailed to his or her address. Councillors are allowed to check out books for three-month intervals and have a two-week grace period. Renewal notices to councillors are sent to their address. The library does not lend some books, such as reference books, rare books, and maps. The librarians must differentiate between books that can be lent and those that cannot be lent. In addition, the librarians have a list of some books they are interested in acquiring but cannot obtain, such as rare or out of-print books and books that were lost or destroyed but have not been replaced. The librarians must have a system that keeps track of books that cannot be lent as well as books that they are interested in acquiring. Some books may have the same title; therefore, the title cannot be used as a means of identification. Every book is identified by its International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a unique international code assigned to all books. Two books with the same title can have different ISBNs if they are in different languages or have different bindings (hardcover or softcover). Editions of the same book have different ISBNs. The proposed database system must be designed to keep track of the members, the books & their multiple copies, the catalogue, and the borrowing activity.